The Psy- the offender. Shaming is the most potent weapon of social control unless it shades into stigmatization. Cincinnati: Ander- is an ineffective weapon of social control Crime, Shame, ciation theory link to crime. Crime, Shame and Reinte- party because it is a degradation ceremony with maximum prospects for stigmatization. In addition, the theory posits a num- and the larger community benefit from ber of conditions that make for effective Tony and John Braithwaite.

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The Psy- the offender. Shaming is the most potent weapon of social control unless it shades into stigmatization. Cincinnati: Ander- is an ineffective weapon of social control Crime, Shame, ciation theory link to crime. Crime, Shame and Reinte- party because it is a degradation ceremony with maximum prospects for stigmatization. In addition, the theory posits a num- and the larger community benefit from ber of conditions that make for effective Tony and John Braithwaite.

Individuals are more susceptible to Braithwaites central thesis is that crime is not the criminal-is defined as im:rrllJrail. The key shame more effectively when they are com- sis explains both why some societies have what follows shaming: reintegration munitarian.

Variables like urbanization and he theory in this book suggests that the residential mobility predict communitarian- higher rates ofcrime than others and why some matization. Reintegration is essential to crime control is cultural commitments individuals are more likely to offend that oth- shamed individuals are at a turning.

Ilg in ways that I call reintegrative. A schematic ers. Interdependency is the between its citizens. As large numbers harnzed, and the offender, who has done theory can be understood in integrative cog- contention is both right and wrong. The of people are stigmatized, they come together harnling. Fur- Such attempts at shaming and reint"",,2ti, t! A shaming incident rein- ism. The end result is a society-such as the and Mugford, ; Maklcai and Brclith! It remains to be demonstrated, fW1.

The latter modalities with few social bonds to conventional soci- critical issue, it would seem, is not the the consequence of stigmatization is at- of public societal shaming exert pressure ety-especially young, unmarried, unem- ceremony in which shaming occurs but tr3lctionto criminal subcultures.

Subcultures for further private individual shaming. Lacking interdependencies that quality ofthe reintegration that follows. In contrast, the rized as follows: bonds further attenuated. As controls weaken, cidivism, the reform of offenders is unlikely consequence of reintegrative shaming is that I. The deterrence literature suggests that they join criminal subcultural groups in which see Andrews and Bonta, Labeling, Interaction, and Crime Crime, Shame, and Reintegration for criminal offending works primarily participatory, shaming builds consc:ii Cultures with heavy emphasis on rein- role will only exacerbate the shame they are through fear of shame in the eyes of intimates through citizens being instruments shaming establish a smoother tran- suffering on her behalf.

Shame not only specifically deters the pressions of abhorrence t, and socialization in the wider society. The Theory of Reintegrative shamed offender, it also generally deters acts of others is part of what makes the family, as the child grows, social many others who also wish to avoid shame abhorrent choice for ourselves to Shaming shifts from external to internal con- and who participate in or become aware of 8.

Once consciences have been punishment-oriented cultures set this Figure In the first part of this 3. Both the specific and general deterrent tance, pangs of conscience become than do shame-oriented cultures. To chapter clear definitions are attempted for effects of shame will be greater for persons effective punishment for crime the key concepts in Figure The cluster that crime control can be made to who remain strongly attached in relation- whereas conscience delivers a timely of six variables around interdependency at by continuing to catalyze internal con- ships of interdependency and affection be- response to every involvement H":rune, the top left of Figure This is one rea- delivered unreliably or with delay.

Shaming is therefore both the of crime and shaming are variables which ap- more effective social control than stigmatiza- process which builds consciences,. Gossip and other modalities of sham- can be especially effective when the tar- ply to both individuals and societies. The the- tion. Gossip within wider circles of We could get a more parsimonious theory shame future criminality and by increasing tances and shaming of offenders to be shamed to their faces to know that by collapsing the similar constructs of inter- the attractiveness of groups that provide so- known to those who gossip are im.

Societal again part of the community of law abid- longer have a framework to predict both eral deterrence. Most of us comply with the dents of shaming remind parents and citizens. In other words, shaming which which individuals and which societies will law most of the time, not because we ration- ers of the need to moralize with their confrontational renders the have more crime.

On the desirability of being ally weigh our fear of the consequences of de- across the whole curriculum of crimes. Public shaming puts pressure on is thus something to be said for hypoc- because to commit the crime is simply un- ents, teachers and others to ensure that our friends are likely to recover from a A theory explaining social behavior in thinkable to us. Shaming is the social process engage in private shaming which is uspiciclD that we have stabbed them in the general, or any specific khld.

First, there must be a type of crime is unthinkable. Cultures where creasingly takes over the role p statement that explains the statistical dis- the social process of shaming is muted are ing once children move away The effectiveness of shaming is often tribution of the behavior in time and cultures where citizens often do not internal- ence of the family and school.

A third reason for the superiority of the law has a more important role to or her company if she is a corporate crimi- statistical distributions can be derIved. A shaming ceremony followed principles to unfamiliar or new c impact of shaming is multiplied. For rea- about the behavior ofindividuals. It means the extent to which individuals pentance. Because shaming is a participatory form the incident of shaming, the moral caCe! We could de- tioning which is more professionalized than meanings.

Most shaming is by individuals within inter- The following might serve as the briefest possible summary of the theory. A variety of dependent communities of concern. P cieties. Reintregrative shaming is not necessarily that are communitarian. In societies where weak; it can be cruel, even vicious.

It is not shaming does become reintegrative, low distinguished from stigmatization by its po- crime rates are the result because disap- tency, but by a a finite rather than open- proval is dispensed without eliciting a rejec- pendency even if the individuals who are de- obligation in interdependency to be both de- tion of the disapprovers, so that the potenti- pendent on him are different from the indi- pendent and dependable.

The Japanese are ended duration which is terminated by for- giveness; and by b efforts to maintain bonds alities for future disapproval are not disman- viduals on whom he is dependent. Interde- said to be socialized not only to amaeru to tled. Moreover, reintegrative shaming is su- pendency is approximately equivalent to the be succored by others but also toamayakasu oflove or respect throughout the finite period of suffering shame.

Rosett, Stigmatization is disintegrative shaming in Shaming that is stigmatizing, in contrast, Communitarianism is a condition of socie- Shaming means all social processes of ex- which no effort is made to reconcile the of- makes criminal subcultures more attractive ties. In communitarian societies individuals pressing disapproval which have the inten-.

The offender is because these are in some sense subcultures are densely enmeshed in interdependencies tion or effect of invoking remorse in the per- outcast, her deviance is allowed to become a which reject the rejectors. The interdependencies have others who become aware of the shaming. But socie- Criminal subcultures are sets of rationali- attracted to criminal subcultures and cut off ual interests. Participation in sub- which invoke personal obligation to others in gether to support criminal behavior.

The ing or in the extent to which the social mean- cultural groups supplies criminal role mod- a community of concern, rather than simply ing of punishment is no more than to inflict clustering is usually facilitated by subcultu- ral groups which provide systematic social els, training in techniques of crime and tech- interdependencies of convenience as be- pain to tip reward-cost calculations in favor niques of neutralizing crime or other forms tween a bank and a small depositor.

A com- of certain outcomes. Shaming, unlike purely support for crime in any of a number of of social support that make choices to en- munitarian culture rejects any pejorative deterrent punishment, sets out to moralize ways-supplying members with criminal op- gage in crime more attractive.

Thus, to the connotation of dependency as threatening in- with the offender to communicate reasons portunities, criminal values, attitudes which extent that shaming is of the stigmatizing dividual autonomy. Communitarian cultures for the evil of her actions. Most shaming is weaken conventional values of law-abid- rather than the reintegrative sort, and that resist interpretations of dependency as weak- neither associated with formal punishment ingness, or techniques of neutralizing con- criminal subcultures are widespread and ac- ness and emphasize the need for mutuality of nor perpetrated by the state, though both ventional values.

While societies characterized variables in determining opportunities. I ing-as a shunt to connect these diverging conventional others versus others who share by high levels of stigmatization will have have argued that the blockages in this Part of theoretical tracks.

Through putting the old a subculture. When stigmatization cieties with little shaming at all depending wealth accumulation by the most affluent of Moreover, we can do better compared with produces secondary deviance, it is because largely on the availability of criminal subcul- corporations often lead to corporate criminal adding together their separate contradic- the balance of shame has tipped; for those tures.

Crime, Shame and Re- ing populations of outcasts with no stake in fend, social support for offending or commu- opportunity theory; the middle and bottom integration. A communitarian cul- and which organize collective criminal enter- theory. With one crucial exception reintegra- Discussion Questions ture, on the other hand, nurtures deviants prises.

However; illegitimate opportunities tive shaming , there is therefore no original- within a network of attachments to conven- are greater in some societies than others for ity in the elements of this theory, simply origi- 1. What is the difference between shaming tional society, thus inhibiting the widespread a variety of further reasons which are not in- nality of synthesis. While the ef- Through the effect of interdependency in reintegrative?

In the United States, what kind of sham- For clarity of exposition the two types of nities on crime are mostly mediated by par- tory successes of control theory in account- ing is most common? Can you provide shaming have been presented as a stark di- ticipation in criminal subcultures, the block- ing for primary deviance. Through shunting some examples? In reality, for any society some de- age of legitimate opportunities combined stigmatization away from other forms of 3. Why does stigmatizing shaming cause viants are dealt with in ways that are more with the availability of illegitimate opportu- shaming as that sort of shaming which trig- crime?

How does this relate to labeling stigmatic while others receive more reinte- nities can independently increase crime. Indeed, a single deviant will more promising approach to the explanation be responded to more stigmatically by some, in crime are supplied by participation in of secondary deviance in labeling and subcul- 4.

If you were going to develop a reintegra- more reintegratively by others. To the extent criminal subcultures or otherwise, they must tural theory terms. We achieve a more speci- tive shaming program for juvenile delin- that the greater weight of shaming tends to be opportunities that appeal to the tastes of fied theory of differential association with quents, what would it involve?

That is, it ignores the treat- more likely to prevail over these crime-pro- ment In tum, the for critical fractions of the population. If summary has neglected how these macro black slum dwellers are systematically de- processes of shaming feed back to ensure that nied economic opportunities because of the micro practices of shaming cover the curricu- stigma of their race and neighborhood, then lum of crimes It can be seen that stig- Shunting the Colliding Locomotives of matization as opposed to social integration Criminological Theory as a cultural disposition may contribute to This sharp contrast with the inability of the systematic blockage of these economic the existing dominant theories to explain opportunities; but cultural variables like stig- much of what we know about crime is matization will be of rather minor impor- achieved, ironically, through the addition of tance compared with structural economic just one element-the partitioning of sham- Related Papers.


Crime, Shame and Reintegration



Crime, Shame and Reintegration by John Braithwaite (1989, Paperback)



ISBN 13: 9780521356688



John Braithwaite (criminologist)


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