Danris No one took a statement from her, or explained the reasons for her arrest. He had been shot in the head. Although many animals possess voices of various types and inflectional capabilities, human beings have learned to modulate their voices by articulating the laryngeal tones into audible oral speech. The article came out during Holy Week and focused on religious hypocrisy, at odds with the Passion of Christ. November 8,p.
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She grew up in Gallarta, but later moved to Somorrostro Biscay. Gallarta was next to a large siderite mine which became the second-most important in Europe in the s and which shut down permanently in Her parents could not afford further education, so she went to work as a seamstress and later as a housemaid. They married in late , two years after the birth of their first child. The article came out during Holy Week and focused on religious hypocrisy, at odds with the Passion of Christ.
After ten years of grassroots militancy, she was appointed to the Central Committee of the PCE in Of her five girls, four died very young. She "used to relate how her husband made a small coffin out of a crate of fruit. The remaining child, Amaya , outlived her mother. In Amaya resided in the working-class neighbourhood of Ciudad Lineal in Madrid.
She was arrested for the first time in September Jailed with common offenders, she persuaded them to begin a hunger strike to obtain freedom for political detainees. Following a second arrest in March , she led other inmates in singing " The Internationale " in the visiting room. She encouraged them to turn down poorly paid menial labour in the prison yard.
The construction of socialism was being managed from it. In it were taking shape the earthly dreams of freedom of generations of slaves, outcasts, serfs, proletarians. From it one could take in and perceive the march of humanity toward communism.
The parents of these children had been jailed following the failed October Revolution suppressed by General Franco at the behest of the Republican government.
She succeeded, but she was detained briefly in the prisons of Sama de Langre and Oviedo. At this Congress, Georgi Dimitrov delivered a keynote speech in which he proposed an alliance with "progressive bourgeois" governments against the fascists.
Upon her release, she hurried to Asturias to campaign for the PCE in the general elections of February In these elections, , ballots were cast. However, "one ballot, one vote" did not rule. Each voter could choose up to 13 candidates simultaneously. As soon as the victory of the Popular Front in the elections became known I, already an elect member of Parliament, showed up at the prison of Oviedo the next morning, went to the office of the Director, who had fled in a mad panic because he had behaved like a genuine criminal toward the Asturian prisoners interned after the revolution of October , and there I found the Administrator to whom I said, "Give me the keys because the prisoners must be released this very day.
I did not wait for Parliament to sit or for the release order to be given. I reasoned, "We have run on the promise of freedom for the prisoners of the revolution of —we won—today the prisoners go free. To arms! Fighting is going on daily and round the clock. And in this fighting some of our finest and bravest comrades have perished. The closing lines of that speech signalled her readiness to endorse radical violence, Men and women of every country who love freedom and progress, we appeal to you for the final time.
If our appeal remains a voice crying out in the wilderness, our protests are ignored, our humane conduct, if all these are taken for signs of weakness, then the enemy will have only himself to blame—for we shall give vent to our wrath and destroy him in his lair. These voices belong to people who themselves are intoxicated with this counter-revolutionary ideology.
The Trotskyists have long been transformed into the agents of Fascism, into the agents of the German Gestapo. We saw this on the ground during the May putsch in Catalonia; we saw this clearly in the disturbances that occurred in various other places. And everybody will realize this when the trial opens against the P. And we realize that the hand of Fascism is behind every attempt to demoralize our home front, to undermine the authority of the Republic.
Therefore it is essential that we wipe out Trotskyism with a firm hand, for Trotskyism is no longer a political option for the working class but an instrument of the counter-revolution. Trotskyism must be rooted out of the proletarian ranks of our Party as one roots out poisonous weeds. The Trotskyists must be rooted out and disposed of like wild beasts, for otherwise every time our men wish to go on the offensive we will not be able to do so due to lawlessness caused by the Trotskyists in the rear.
An end must be put to these traitors once and for all so that our men on the front lines can fight without fear of being stabbed in the back. She said the violence was the culmination of an anarchist plot that included plans to stop the movement of trains and cut all telegraph and telephone lines.
She cited an "order [from the Catalan government] to its forces to control the telephone building and disarm all people whom they encounter in the streets without proper authorization" as the aim of the anarchist plan. However, she provided no evidence to support these claims, which were widely held by fellow Party members at the time but have since been discredited.
The anarchists and Trotskyists saw the events as an attempt by the Communist Party in close contact with the Stalinist NKVD to rule over all revolutionary activity and blamed the Communists for authoritarianism.
During the month of June the government of the Popular Front, now clearly under Communist sway, eradicates those segments of its own army under the control of the POUM and of the Anarchists, every one stationed in the Front of Aragon. In Barcelona the police unleashes the cruellest[ neutrality is disputed ] of persecutions against the POUM. Exile, part I — [ edit ] On March 6, , she flew out of Spain under enemy naval fire to the major Algerian port city of Oran then under French sovereignty.
Her arrival came as a surprise to the authorities, who hurriedly put her aboard a liner bound for Marseille. The Soviet Union received the refugees warmly. She liked to attend the Bolshoi Theatre and the Romen Theatre. She was an avid reader.
She delighted in seeing the emancipation of Russian women. The work involved the continual evaluation, analysis and discussion of the progress of Communism outside the Soviet Union. This task was complemented by internal discussions in the PCE central committee which focused on Spain.
To speak about the triumph of socialism over one-sixth of the earth, to write about the lush development of agriculture in the Soviet Union , a development unequalled by any other country, to admire the astonishing growth of socialist industry and the impetuous gains of the workers, to marvel at the unprecedented accomplishments of the mighty Soviet air force, at the mighty beefing up of the Soviet navy, to describe the glorious exploits of the Red Army liberator of peoples, to study the wonderful framework of the huge socialist state with its multiple nationalities united by unbreakable bonds of fraternal friendship, to observe the progress of science, art and of the culture of all Soviet peoples, the joyous life of their children, women, workers, peasants and intellectuals, the abiding security of everyone and their faith in the future, to know the daily life of socialism and the heroic actions of the Soviet people means to see Stalin, to cite Stalin, to encounter Stalin.
Initial broadcasts were made from candle-lit basements under sporadic aerial bombardment. Civilians would pick up the blazing sticks with a pair of tongs and dunk them in pails of water. Elsewhere, from Crimea to Finland, the Spanish Communist volunteers fought as guerrillas deployed behind enemy lines, in the Red Army or with the Soviet air force; some made it to Berlin and at least one scouted territory held by the Spanish Insurgent Blue Division. She used various aliases such as Antonio de Guevara or Juan de Guernica presumably to make believe the station had an extensive network of commentators and newspapermen.
In Cairo she and her party booked passage on the first passenger ship to leave Alexandria , understanding it was going to Marseille. The persecution inside the party increases as do the arrests of comrades who come to Spain from France.
The decision to assassinate militants was taken in the Secretariat of the PCE. Some comrades came to the brink of insanity during the rounds of interrogation and others were driven to suicide out of the despicable accusations made against them. In Victor Garcia found the body of his father partially buried in a wooded area of O Deza Pontevedra.
He had been shot in the head. After it was carried out in , the regional PCE liaison wrote, "At last we have hunted him down.
This riffraff withstood us like a leech. We managed to catch him in Lalin from where he directed certain adventurous, uncontrolled groups. He is a provocateur who has given us many troubles; though belatedly we have eliminated him.
In she attended the 10th Congress of the Italian Communist Party held December 2—8 in Rome where she met Socialists , Christian-Democrats and some church representatives.
To the clerics she remarked, "We are not as wicked as you think, and we are not as good as we probably think we are. De la Fuente had been condemned to twenty-three years in prison. She held a press conference in Moscow to publicize these actions. On February 27 the Captain General of the Madrid region annulled the proceedings.
However, the first sentence stuck and Lopez later died in prison. She started to apologize profusely, but Tito cut her short and said, "Do not vex yourself, Dolores, do not worry. I know very well how things worked in those days. I know it perfectly. Furthermore, believe me, I most likely would have done what you did had I been in your situation. The tomes were published between and She stated that she had travelled outside the USSR many times, that her profession was a publicist and contributor to newspapers and magazines, that she was the president of the PCE and that she wanted to travel freely to her own country.
On April 27 Julian Ruiz said that he would not be at the airport to greet his estranged wife, "Nevertheless she is the mother of my children and I wish her health and a peaceful life. However, on May 12 the authorities relented and provided it. The PCE lied about her arrival and did not give her an official welcome secretary-general Carrillo was in Seville. Five hundred party members and sympathizers showed up at the airport, some waving PCE flags and wearing red berets with Communist insignia; they went up on the observation deck and watched and cheered as she landed.
PCE got 60, votes She joined in the 1-minute general standing ovation, although she remained seated. If you had any shame you would not have returned to Spain. On October 31, , she voted with a very loud "Yes" for the new Spanish Constitution.
Her life and that of every Communist was put in danger on February 23, , when Fascist elements of the Spanish armed forces and of the paramilitary police staged a coup.
Survivors of the International Brigades came to celebrate her 90th birthday. She had not contributed to the national social security program and therefore had no pension. Congress granted her a monthly perquisite of , Pesetas approximately 1, of Canadian dollars.
Veterans of the civil war, war amps,[ citation needed ] the ambassadors of Cuba , Czechoslovakia , East Germany , Yugoslavia and China were among the first to pay their respects as was the mayor of Madrid. Instead, an armature was welded together from scrap iron and covered in fibreglass.
The final version of the monument is a stylised female figure, representing Dolores Ibarruri, in a long dress, standing with legs apart and arms raised.
The phrase was first used by the Mexican revolutionary leader, Emiliano Zapata , but Ibarruri gave it new meaning when she used it during the miners strike in Asturias, Spain, in Over time, the B listed statue fell into extremely poor condition and this generated criticism from the public, elected officials and trades unionists.
Santiago Carrillo presentó "El único camino", de Dolores Ibárruri
El único camino