Jahrhunderts, nach Ceuta , Nordafrika. Seine Autobiographie, von der auch Autographen in zwei Bearbeitungen vorliegen, hat er einige Monate vor seinem Tod abgeschlossen. Im heutigen Marokko residierten die Meriniden — West algerien wurde von den Abdalwadiden — beherrscht und die Hafsiden — regierten Ostalgerien, Tunesien und Cyrenaika. Die vier muslimischen Rechtsschulen, die Hanafiten , Malikiten , Schafiiten und Hanbaliten hatten traditionellerweise jede ihren eigenen obersten Richter. Im Jahre entschloss er sich, die Pilgerfahrt nach Mekka anzutreten, wo er auch einige Zeit in Bibliotheken verbrachte.

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In , the Egyptian Sultan, al-Malik udh-Dhahir Barquq , made him professor of the Qamhiyyah Madrasah and the grand qadi of the Maliki school of fiqh one of four schools, the Maliki school was widespread primarily in Western Africa. His efforts at reform encountered resistance, however, and within a year, he had to resign his judgeship. A contributory factor to his decision to resign may have been the heavy personal blow that struck him in , when a ship carrying his wife and children sank off the coast of Alexandria.

Ibn Khaldun now decided to complete the pilgrimage to Mecca, after all. At court, he fell out of favor for a time, as during revolts against Barquq, he had, apparently under duress, with other Cairo jurists, issued a fatwa against Barquq. Later relations with Barquq returned to normal, and he was once again named the Maliki qadi. Altogether, he was called six times to that high office, which, for various reasons, he never held long. His doubts were vindicated, as the young and inexperienced Faraj, concerned about a revolt in Egypt, left his army to its own devices in Syria and hurried home.

Meanwhile, he was alleged to have joined an underground party, Rijal Hawa Rijal, whose reform-oriented ideals attracted the attention of local political authorities. The elderly Ibn Khaldun was placed under arrest. He died on 17 March , one month after his sixth selection for the office of the Maliki qadi Judge.

Books ; Historiography of the Berbers and the Maghreb. Khaldun departs from the classical style of Arab historians [n 3] by synthesising multiple, sometimes contradictory, sources without citations. Concerning the discipline of sociology , he described the dichotomy of sedentary life versus nomadic life as well as the inevitable loss of power that occurs when warriors conquer a city.

This social cohesion arises spontaneously in tribes and other small kinship groups; it can be intensified and enlarged by a religious ideology. This means that the next cohesive group that conquers the diminished civilization is, by comparison, a group of barbarians. Once the barbarians solidify their control over the conquered society, however, they become attracted to its more refined aspects, such as literacy and arts, and either assimilate into or appropriate such cultural practices.

Then, eventually, the former barbarians will be conquered by a new set of barbarians, who will repeat the process. One contemporary reader of Khaldun has read this as an early business cycle theory, though set in the historical circumstances of the mature Islamic empire. He describes the economy as being composed of value-adding processes ; that is, labour and skill is added to techniques and crafts and the product is sold at a higher value[ dubious — discuss ].

He also made the distinction between "profit" and "sustenance", in modern political economy terms, surplus and that required for the reproduction of classes respectively. He also calls for the creation of a science to explain society and goes on to outline these ideas in his major work, the Muqaddimah. Ibn Khaldun also outlines early theories of division of labor, taxes, scarcity, and economic growth. He emphasized that the weight and purity of these coins should be strictly followed: the weight of one dinar should be one mithqal the weight of 72 grains of barley , roughly 4.

He further classified the non-religious sciences into intellectual sciences such as logic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, etc. He also suggested that possibly more divisions will appear in the future with different societies. All societies must have a state governing them in order to establish a society.

He attempted to standardize the history of societies by identifying ubiquitous phenomena present in all societies. To him, civilization was a phenomenon that will be present as long as humans exist. He characterized the fulfillment of basic needs as the beginning of civilization. At the beginning, people will look for different ways of increasing productivity of basic needs and expansion will occur.

Later the society starts becoming more sedentary and focuses more on crafting, arts and the more refined characteristics. By the end of a society, it will weaken, allowing another small group of individuals to come into control.

The conquering group is described as an unsatisfied group within the society itself or a group of desert bandits that constantly attack other weaker or weakened societies. In the Muqaddimah, his most important work, he thoughtfully and scrupulously discusses an introduction of philosophy to history in a general manner, based on observable patterns within a theoretical framework of known historical events of his time.

He described the beginnings, development, cultural trends and the fall of all societies, leading to the rise of a new society which would then follow the same trends in a continuous cycle.

Ibn Khaldun did not create a perfect model for a society during his life, but he did think there was a need for a new model to manage society to ensure its continuous economic growth. Also, he recommended the best political approaches to develop a society according to his knowledge of history. He heavily emphasized that a good society would be one in which a tradition of education is deeply rooted in its culture. The concept of asabiya has been translated as "social cohesion," "group solidarity," or "tribalism.

Ibn Khaldun believed that too much bureaucracy, such as taxes and legislations, would lead to the decline of a society, since it would constrain the development of more specialized labor increase in scholars and development of different services. He believed that bureaucrats cannot understand the world of commerce and do not possess the same motivation as a businessman. This faculty is also what inspires human beings to form into a social structure to co-operate in division of labor and organization.

Another important concept he emphasizes in his work is the mastery of crafts, habits and skills. These takes place after a society is established and according to Ibn Khaldun the level of achievement of a society can be determined by just analyzing these three concepts. A society in its earliest stages is nomadic and primarily concerned with survival, while a society at a later stage is sedentary, with greater achievement in crafts.

A society with a sedentary culture and stable politics would be expected to have greater achievements in crafts and technology. Ibn Khaldun argued that without the strong establishment of an educational tradition, it would be very difficult for the new generations to maintain the achievements of the earlier generations, let alone improve them. Another way to distinguish the achievement of a society would be the language factor of a society, since for him the most important element of a society would not be land, but the language spoken by them.

He was surprised that many non-Arabs were really successful in the Arabic society, had good jobs and were well received by the community.

Advancements in literary works such as poems and prose were another way to distinguish the achievement of a civilization, but Ibn Khaldun believed that whenever the literary facet of a society reaches its highest levels it ceases to indicate societal achievements anymore, but is an embellishment of life. For logical sciences he established knowledge at its highest level as an increase of scholars and the quality of knowledge.

For him the highest level of literary productions would be the manifestation of prose, poems and the artistic enrichment of a society. At the end of the dynasty, taxation yields a small revenue from large assessments. While Ibn Khaldun is known to have been a successful lecturer on jurisprudence within religious sciences, only very few of his students were aware of, and influenced by, his Muqaddimah.

These criticisms included accusations of inadequate historical knowledge, an inaccurate title, disorganization, and a style resembling that of the prolific Arab literature writer, Al-Jahiz.

Since then, the work of Ibn Khaldun has been extensively studied in the Western world with special interest. Reynold A. Influential British historian and international affairs specialist Arnold J. Plato , Aristotle , and Augustine were not his peers, and all others were unworthy of being even mentioned along with him".

The theme of the contest is "how individuals, think tanks, universities and entrepreneurs can influence government policies to allow the free market to flourish and improve the lives of its citizens based on Islamic teachings and traditions. The university promotes a policy of trilingualism. The languages in question are English, Modern Turkish, and Arabic and it emphasis on social sciences. In , the President of the United States , Ronald Reagan , cited Ibn Khaldun as an influence on his supply-side economic policies, also known as Reaganomics.

He paraphrased Ibn Khaldun, who said that "in the beginning of the dynasty, great tax revenues were gained from small assessments," and that "at the end of the dynasty, small tax revenues were gained from large assessments. Cairo Autobiography in Arabic. Translated from the Arabic by Franz Rosenthal.

New York: Princeton. Franz Rosenthal, ed.


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