In this study,antioxidant and total phenolic content of L. Seeds of L. Ground material 50 g was extracted by maceration using ml of ethanol-water In addition, Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. Total phenolic content was
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Abstract Background Balangu Lallemantia royleana belongs to Lamiaceae and is a medicine used in Iranian traditional and folklore medicine in the treatment of various nervous, hepatic, and renal diseases. Methods In this study, the influence of molecular weight MW was measured on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Balangu seed gum fractions. Firstly, Balangu seed gum was fractionated by precipitation method using ethanol on the basis of MW. Monosaccharide composition was measured by GC-MS.
The antibacterial activities were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and two Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli by minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration MIC and MBC , disc, and well diffusion method.
Balangu and its fractions were composed of galactose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, and xylose. Antibacterial test results showed, that for SUPER-Balangu, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration against Staphylococcus were 3. Background Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years, and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources, many based on their use in traditional medicine.
Various medicinal plants have been used for years in daily life to treat disease all over the world. Traditionally, plant compounds are used for treatment of hospital infections in advanced countries. An appropriate method in obviating the common problems of antibiotic side effects is using plant drugs with antimicrobial properties Golshani and Sharifzadeh Furthermore, natural antioxidants such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and other phytochemicals can act as free radical scavengers.
Many reports have indicated that the daily use of foods with high levels of flavonoids may have the potential to decrease the risk of certain cancers, such as colon, breast, and pancreatic cancers Safaei-Ghomi et al.
These compounds play a crucial role in preventing chronic diseases by retarding the oxidative degradation caused by such highly reactive molecules as reactive oxygen species ROS Gharibi et al. Antioxidant activity, a common bioactivity of natural-derived polysaccharides, was widely investigated for the prevention and treatment of diseases associated with oxidation damage Wang et al. It is widely believed that the antioxidant activity of natural polysaccharides was influenced by raw materials, extraction procedures, and drying methods Zhu et al.
Balangu Lallemantia royleana is a medicinal plant, which is widely grown in different regions of European and Middle Eastern countries especially Turkey, Iran, and India. It is used in a wide range of traditional beverages or industrial products in Iran and Turkey Razavi and Mohammadi Seeds of Lallemantia royleana are dark-brown to black in color and smooth.
When moistened with water, the seeds become coated with translucent and voluminous mucilage and hydrocolloids.
The taste of the moistened seed is bland, soothing, and spicy Malavya and Dutt ; Mohammad Amini and Razavi Traditionally, it is a very common practice that local people use indigenous plants to cure infectious diseases. These indigenous plants or plant products or those that are part of food as dietary components are termed as ethnomedicine. Although there are very few reports on the mechanism of action and phytochemistry of these plant-based phytomedicines, traditional knowledge reports that these plants possess potential to cure infectious diseases.
Nowadays, these ethnomedicines have been receiving considerable attention by scientist and pharmaceutical research industries with the aim to investigate for more effective substitute Karsha and Lakshmi ; Dogruoz et al. Balangu seed contained In some southern parts of Iran, seed powders have been used as a tonic medication and a remedy for psychopath diseases Safa et al.
Previous studies were focused on its ethno-botany, while medicinal properties of L. So far, not a single study has been reported with reference to its antibacterial potential Mohammad Amini and Razavi ; Amiri et al.
Monosaccharides composition determined by anion-exchange chromatography HPAEC showed the major monosaccharides of Balangu seed gum were in following order: arabinose Trace amounts of xylose 6. To the best of our knowledge, no study about the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities was investigated for Balangu and its fractions. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water-soluble polysaccharide isolated from Balangu and its fractions.
Methods Materials Seeds of Balangu were purchased from a local market in Bojnord, Iran, in May and cleaned for dust and broken seeds. Other chemicals had analytical grade Merck Company, Darmstadt, Germany. Segregation of mucilage from the inflated seed was attained through the scraping method.
The seeds were crossed through an extractor equipped with a rotating plate which scraped the mucilage layer on the seed surface. Fractionation The method of polysaccharide fractionation from Balangu seed gum was set according to Naji-Tabasi et al. For this purpose, Balangu seed gum solution 0. Determination of total phenolic content The total phenolic content extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method Hayouni et al.
Then, the tubes were incubated at room temperature for min. The analysis was done in triplicates. The product was recovered using sodium hydride according to the method provided by Wolfrom and Thompson The column used was HP and nitrogen utilized as the carrier gas flow rate 1. The temperature remained constant for 15 min. Identification of pixels based on standards and mass spectrometry was carried out.
Antioxidant activity DPPH radical scavenging assay The antioxidant activity extracts were assayed according to the method of Kong et al. The extracts at different concentrations 0. Thus, 1 ml of the sample was mixed with 0. After 30 min, the absorbance was measured at nm. The antioxidant activity was calculated using Eq.
Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT was used as the reference antioxidant. Reducing power The reducing powers of extracts were measured following the method of Malsawmtluangi et al. One milliliter of the sample with various concentrations was mixed with 2 ml of phosphate buffer 0. The mixture was centrifuged at g for 10 min. About 2 ml of the supernatant was mixed with 2 ml of distilled water and 0. After 10 min, the absorbance of the resulting solution was measured at nm.
Antimicrobial activity Antibacterial activity of the Balangu and its fractions was determined by macro-dilution, disc, and well diffusion methods. All tests were performed in three replicates. Determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration Minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC were determined by broth macro-dilution method in well plates by Rios et al. Suspensions were further diluted to obtain a concentration of colony-forming units CFU per milliliter for the bacteria. The sterility of the medium was also tested in two wells, and gentamicin was used as the positive control for bacterial strains.
Briefly, 0. The results were expressed as the lowest concentration of plant extract that could inhibit any red dye production.
Minimum inhibitory concentration MIC values were defined as the lowest concentrations of extract that inhibit bacteria after 24 h. All experiments were done in triplicates. Determination of minimum bactericidal concentrations The bactericidal effects of the extract were determined according to the method described by Rios et al. Minimal bactericidal concentration MBC was recorded from the first tube that showed no growth on solid media. Antimicrobial activity by disc and well diffusion method The extract of Balangu and its fractions were tested for antibacterial activity using the disc and well diffusion methods on solid media Mueller-Hinton agar MHA plates.
Finally, the zones of growth inhibition around the discs were measured. Statistical analysis The measurements of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities were carried out for three replicates.
Results and discussion Total phenolic content Folin-Ciocalteu method is a widely used assay for quantitative determination of phenolic compounds Tawaha et al. Phenolic compounds are secondary plant metabolites that play a key role in the sensory and nutritional quality of fruits, vegetables, and other plants Ignat et al.
Table 1 Monosaccharide composition of the Balangu and its fractions d. Razavi et al. Salehi et al. Behbahani and Imani Fooladi found that polysaccharides of Balangu consist of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, and glucose which were determined as Farhadi showed the Balangu was contained of arabinose 7.
In this research, PER-Balangu was composed of glucose 2. Sharifi-Rad et al.
Antioxidant Activity of Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Seed Extract
Abstract Background Balangu Lallemantia royleana belongs to Lamiaceae and is a medicine used in Iranian traditional and folklore medicine in the treatment of various nervous, hepatic, and renal diseases. Methods In this study, the influence of molecular weight MW was measured on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Balangu seed gum fractions. Firstly, Balangu seed gum was fractionated by precipitation method using ethanol on the basis of MW. Monosaccharide composition was measured by GC-MS. The antibacterial activities were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus and two Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli by minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration MIC and MBC , disc, and well diffusion method. Balangu and its fractions were composed of galactose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, and xylose. Antibacterial test results showed, that for SUPER-Balangu, the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum bactericidal concentration against Staphylococcus were 3.
Cell Mol Biol Noisy-le-grand. Susceptibility of herpes simplex virus type 1 to monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and essential oils of Sinapis arvensis L. In this study, monoterpenes of thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and essential oils from Sinapis arvensis L. The antiviral activity of three monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene and three essential oils were evaluated by cytotoxicity assay, direct plaque test. In addition, the modes of antiviral action of these compounds were investigated during the viral infection cycle. Results showed that the inhibitory concentrations IC50 were determined at 0. A manifestly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-1 could be exhibited for compounds tested.