The latter is called Kalpitha sangeetham. The performer creates music at stage with imagination and creativity. The main crux of Karnatic music is manodharma sangeetham. Even though we say the main forms are Ragam, Thanam, Pallavi, Neraval and Kalpana Swaram, we can say other minor forms like singing a virutham, doing graha bedham etc are also from the mind and can be weaved at the stage.
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The rendering and exposition of Carnatic music is of 2 kinds. They are: Kalpita Sangeetha: The compositions previously composed, memorized, practiced and performed.
Manodharma Sangeetha: The music extemporized and performed. The distinctive feature of Indian Music is Manodharma Sangeetha. It is an important part of sabha ganam. Almost a third part of the concert time is taken up with the performance of this type of music.
Manodharma sangeetha is art music in its purest form. It is an improvised music. It is the music created on the spot and sung or performed, and flows out of him spontaneously. Bearing in mind the detailed lakshana of the raga, its jiva svaras and nyasa svaras, its raga ranjana combinations and visesha prayogas, the musician elaborates the raga in such a manner as to bring out its several points of excellence.
Manodharma sangeetham has 5 divisions: I. Raga alapana: The alapana of a raga consists of 3 main stages:- 1. It is here that the avirbhava manifestation of the raga takes place. In this introductory part, the alapana is commenced on the Madhya sthayi shadja and followed up with appropriate sancharas in the mandra and Madhya sthayis with occasional flights in the tara sthayi.
A return is finally made to the Madhya sthayi shadja. Raga vardhani or the body of the alapana: The second part of the alapana, known as Raga vardhini is the substantial part of the alapana. Raga vardhini has four stages and for each of these stages there is the commencement of eduppu and the conclusion or muktayi. The muktaayi is called vidari. Karanam is another nane for Raga vardhani. Here the alapana is commenced on the Madhya sthayi shadja and continued in the mandara sthayi for the most part, now and then touching the middle octave notes.
Svaras are sounded with appropriate gamakas. Phrases which reveal the melodic entity of the raga and visesha sancharas and rakthi prayogas which throw light on the raga should be introduced. Vidari II: Dwiteeya raga vardhani. To render the raga alapana in medium tempo in poorvanga and uttaranga of the middle octave.
This begins as before but the sanchara is now confined principally to the Madhya sthayi with occasional flights in the other sthayis. One can go up to tara sthayi madhyama and even panchama and then descend in a dashing manner and finish on the Madhya sthayi shaja. Sancharas containing new phrases and prayogas should figure here. Vidari III: Triteeya raga vardhini. In this stage, raga is sung in Taara sthayi Higher Octave svaras like S R G in a faster tempo, covering the middle octave notes also.
While doing so, the musician gives a complete picture of the raga, covering raga ranjaka prayogas, apoorva prayogas etc. This stage of raga alapana is done in fast tempo. It covers two and half octave of range speedily.
The musician sings the raga, dwelling in the highest octve. When he starts this stage of singing, the audience will know that the musician will soon conclude his raga alapana. Sthayi: If in the course of sanchara, one starts on a note and finishes on the same note, that note is called a sthayi svara. Sthayi is of 2 kinds: Arohana sthayi and Avarohana sthayi.
In the arohana sthayi, the sthayi svaras are in the arohana krama, but the sancharas themselves, beginning with each sthayi svara, progress downwards. In other words, the highest note touched in each sthayi sanchara is the sthayi svara itself.
In the avarohana sthayi, the converse is the case. The sthayi svaras are in the avarohana krama, but the sancharas themselves progress upwards, the lowest note touched in the sancharas in each case being its own sthayi svaras.
The sthayi sanchara is thus another sanchara paddhati in the raga alapana and it is done in the madhyamakala medium tempo. Madhyamakala tana, ghanam : The next important branch of raga alapana is tana or madhyamakala.
This is the most lively and bewitching part of the raa exposition and comes and aa welcome relief after the long drawn-out chowkakala alapana. This is really alapana in madhyamakala or medium speed.
There is perceptible rhythm here. The rhythmical flow of music is very fascinating. Tanam is madhyamakala ganam. The music herein is in a sense measured, though not into specific avartas. A uniform tempo is maintained and variety is introduced by the change of figure now and then.
Whenever a nyasam is made, some slow speed sancharas around the nyasa svaras are permissible. The phrases anamta, tanamta, tananna, tanamna should be used in this style of raga exposition. Expert vainikas play trikala tanas. Tanam in drutakala is called ghanam. Music in quick tempo is the dominant feature of this exposition and while singing nyasa, madhyamakala and vilambakala sancharas can come in. Eight varieties of tana have been recognized. Pallavi: Pallavi is most important branch of creative music.
A meaningful sentence with two equal parts is taken for Pallavi. This is constructed as pause after Pada Garbham on the spot at the end of the performance by the suggestion of learned audience. Pallavi used to be a musical resting contest in the courts of ragas by the court Musician and visiting Vidwan. The words of a pallavi may be either on a sacred or secular theme and can be in any language. The words may also be of an amorous, satirical or humorous character. The sahitya may also be of a funny character.
The sahitya of a few pallavis consists of the first words of some well-known songs. Pallavis in manipravala sahityas also exist. Prathamanga and Dvitiyanga are the two parts of a pallavi and the dividing point is called the padagarbham or arudi. At this point, there is a period of rest or visranti. In pallavis in Adi tala, the padagarbham coincides with the best of the first drutam.
Just as there are major ragas and minor ragas, there are major pallavis, which admit of a long and detailed treatment and minor pallavis, which are intended for use in concerts of shorter duration.
The music of a pallavi should be good and interesting to hear. It must reflect the svarupa of the raga. The pallavi provides intellectual pleasure and aesthetic joy.
Niraval: Niraval is literally filling up i. The pallavi is presented in new melodic garbs, the rhythmical setting being kept intact.
Niravals gradually tend to become variations on the whole theme. The singer reverts to the original theme at the conclusion of each niraval.
In Niraval, care should be taken to see that the syllables of the sthayi fall at the identical places in the avarta as in the fundamental theme. Svara Kalpana: Svara Kalpana is the presentation of raga bhava through the medium of svara sancharas, the notes being rendered with their characteristic srutis, gamakas and intonation. Kalpana svaras are sung to the pallavi sahitya, anupallavi sahitya, charana sahitya, making the ending note of Svara Kalpana as Nyasa svara to reach the sahity note as the Graha svara.
Musicians while doing Kalpana svaras shall keep in their minds the points mentioned below: Svaras of particular raga; in first and second speeds; in one avarta, two avartas etc; Murchana; Anya svara; Raga Bhava; Gati Bheda; Mridanga Jatis and Muktayi Calculations; etc. The musicians will have to practice the Kalpana svaras taking the formula of expansion by observing permutations with combinations, also considering Janta, Deeragha, short range, long range Dhaatu notes and different complicated patterns of svaras to chief absolute control on the creation of svara kalpana.
It can be likened to speakers resorting to impromptu speech while reading from their prepared texts[ original research? It serves as an important and integral aspect of Carnatic music. There is ample scope for manodharma when rendering raga alapana , tanam , neraval , pallavi , swaram and also kritis. The manodharma is cultivated after several years of constant learning, assimilating and experimenting with various forms of compositions like varnams , kritis , javalis , etc. Manodharma plays such a significant role that a capable artiste may never render a raga the same way twice.