The exact etymology is unclear. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians , Hebrews , Ancient Greeks , Manipuri and Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampiric creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity known today as the vampire originates almost exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe ,  when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches , but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire.
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The exact etymology is unclear. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians , Hebrews , Ancient Greeks , Manipuri and Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern vampires. Despite the occurrence of vampiric creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity known today as the vampire originates almost exclusively from early 18th-century southeastern Europe ,  when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published.
In most cases, vampires are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches , but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a vampire. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public executions of people believed to be vampires.
Vampires were usually reported as bloated in appearance, and ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour; these characteristics were often attributed to the recent drinking of blood. Blood was often seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was often open. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse that was jumped over by an animal, particularly a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. In Russian folklore , vampires were said to have once been witches or people who had rebelled against the Russian Orthodox Church while they were alive.
Burying a corpse upside-down was widespread, as was placing earthly objects, such as scythes or sickles ,  near the grave to satisfy any demons entering the body or to appease the dead so that it would not wish to arise from its coffin. It has been argued that instead, the coin was intended to ward off any evil spirits from entering the body, and this may have influenced later vampire folklore. This tradition persisted in modern Greek folklore about the vrykolakas , in which a wax cross and piece of pottery with the inscription " Jesus Christ conquers" were placed on the corpse to prevent the body from becoming a vampire.
Similar Chinese narratives state that if a vampiric being came across a sack of rice , it would have to count every grain; this is a theme encountered in myths from the Indian subcontinent , as well as in South American tales of witches and other sorts of evil or mischievous spirits or beings.
The dhampir sprung of a karkanxholl has the unique ability to discern the karkanxholl; from this derives the expression the dhampir knows the lugat. The lugat cannot be seen, he can only be killed by the dhampir, who himself is usually the son of a lugat. In different regions, animals can be revenants as lugats; also, living people during their sleep. Dhampiraj is also an Albanian surname. Folkloric vampires could also make their presence felt by engaging in minor poltergeist -styled activity, such as hurling stones on roofs or moving household objects,  and pressing on people in their sleep.
Garlic is a common example,  a branch of wild rose and hawthorn are said to harm vampires, and in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof of a house was said to keep them away.
Vampires are said to be unable to walk on consecrated ground , such as that of churches or temples, or cross running water. This is similar to a practice of " anti-vampire burial ": burying sharp objects, such as sickles, with the corpse, so that they may penetrate the skin if the body bloats sufficiently while transforming into a revenant. In a 16th-century burial near Venice , a brick forced into the mouth of a female corpse has been interpreted as a vampire-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in In the Balkans, a vampire could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or by exorcism.
In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 19th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin was taken. For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure.
In Saxon regions of Germany, a lemon was placed in the mouth of suspected vampires. Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries. Blood drinking and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would eat flesh and drink blood; even the devil was considered synonymous with the vampire.
Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies,  and estries , female shapeshifting, blood-drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims. According to Sefer Hasidim , estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested. An injured estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given to her by her attacker.
Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively. Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze -footed creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood.
They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix, a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.
Many myths surrounding vampires originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century British historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants,   though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant. He linked this event to the lack of a shmirah guarding after death as the corpse could be a vessel for evil spirits. These tales formed the basis of the vampire legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized.
One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia , in Local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow. The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.
Even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of vampires. Blagojevich was reported to have died at the age of 62, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son for food.
When the son refused, he was found dead the following day. Blagojevich supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood. Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe. The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-called vampire attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them.
Within his classification of demons , he explained the concept through the notion that incubi and succubae could possess the corpse of the deceased and walk the earth. As a devil borrows a dead body, it would seem so visibly and naturally to any man who converses with them and that any substance within the body would remain intolerably cold to others which they abuse.
From , Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, a subject resumed by Otto in , and then by Michael Ranft in The subject was based on the observation that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point either devoured the interior fabric of their coffin or their own limbs. Theologians and clergymen also address the topic.
A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione, On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini Pope Benedict XIV.
In other words, vampires did not exist. Calmet conducted extensive research and amassed judicial reports of vampiric incidents and extensively researched theological and mythological accounts as well, using the scientific method in his analysis to come up with methods for determining the validity for cases of this nature.
As he stated in his treatise:  [T]hey see, it is said, men who have been dead for several months, come back to earth, talk, walk, infest villages, ill use both men and beasts, suck the blood of their near relations, make them ill, and finally cause their death; so that people can only save themselves from their dangerous visits and their hauntings by exhuming them, impaling them, cutting off their heads, tearing out the heart, or burning them.
These revenants are called by the name of oupires or vampires, that is to say, leeches ; and such particulars are related of them, so singular, so detailed, and invested with such probable circumstances and such judicial information, that one can hardly refuse to credit the belief which is held in those countries, that these revenants come out of their tombs and produce those effects which are proclaimed of them.
Calmet had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and numerous supportive demonologists who interpreted the treatise as claiming that vampires existed. The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption ; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite. The controversy in Austria only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten , to investigate the claims of vampiric entities.
He concluded that vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the vampire epidemics. Other European countries followed suit. Despite this condemnation, the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local folklore.
Classified as vampires, all share the thirst for blood. The term Loogaroo possibly comes from the French loup-garou meaning "werewolf" and is common in the culture of Mauritius. There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never used to describe the dead.
The deadly disease tuberculosis , or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.
Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death, cut out her heart and burned it to ashes.
There are two main vampiric creatures in the Philippines: the Tagalog Mandurugo "blood-sucker" and the Visayan Manananggal "self-segmenter". The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, threadlike tongue by night.
The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. They use an elongated proboscislike tongue to suck fetuses from these pregnant women. They also prefer to eat entrails specifically the heart and the liver and the phlegm of sick people.
She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women.
She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, with which she sucked the blood of children. Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir.
This description would also fit the Sundel Bolongs. Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the s and s. Vampire hunting societies still exist, but they are largely formed for social reasons. Amateur vampire hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery. Several books have been written about the case, notably by Sean Manchester, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the " Highgate Vampire " and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of vampires in the area.
Local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend. According to the paper, if the first vampire had appeared on 1 January , it fed once a month which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore , and every victim turned into a vampire, then within two and a half years the entire human population of the time would have become vampires.
The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mids. In some cases, especially in small localities, beliefs are still rampant and sightings or claims of vampire attacks occur frequently. In Romania during February , several relatives of Toma Petre feared that he had become a vampire. They dug up his corpse, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.
An alternative collective noun is a "house" of vampires. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known. This has led vampire hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life. This causes the body to look "plump", "well-fed", and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus.
The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect". This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".
In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape.
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See all videos for this article Creatures with vampiric characteristics have appeared at least as far back as ancient Greece , where stories were told of creatures that attacked people in their sleep and drained their bodily fluids. Tales of walking corpses that drank the blood of the living and spread plague flourished in medieval Europe in times of disease, and people lacking a modern understanding of infectious disease came to believe that those who became vampires preyed first upon their own families. Research from the 20th and 21st centuries has posited that characteristics associated with vampires can be traced back to certain diseases such as porphyria , which makes one sensitive to sunlight; tuberculosis , which causes wasting; pellagra , a disease that thins the skin; and rabies , which causes biting and general sensitivities that could lead to repulsion by light or garlic. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
de Havilland DH.100 Vampire
Dalla sezione mediana delle due semiali partivano le travi di coda a sezione ellittica e presentavano la tipica struttura a semiguscio in D. D Tale scelta fu dettata per evitare che perdite per attrito, generate nel tubo di scarico a valle del motore, potessero comportare una cospicua riduzione di spinta. Motore[ modifica modifica wikitesto ] Il prototipo del Vampire era equipaggiato con il turbogetto a compressore centrifugo frutto di un progetto di Frank Halford , costruito dalla stessa de Havilland e designato inizialmente come Halford H. Il sistema era avviato intorno ai Il tettuccio veniva sigillato, dopo la chiusura, grazie al gonfiamento di una guarnizione pneumatica che andava in battuta. Il Vampire fu uno dei pochi aerei a reazione senza il seggiolino eiettabile.
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